Al-Qawa'id Al-Fiqhiyyah of Al-Sa'dee - Part 1: Definition of Usool Ul-Fiqh and Its Benefit
Posted by Abu.Iyaad on Friday, October, 03 2014 and filed under Fiqh Principles of al-Sa'dee
Key topics: Al-Sa'dee Usool Al-fiqh

An existing translation of as-Sa'dee's work titled (رسالة لطيفة جامعة في أصول الفقه المهمة) "A Brief, Concise Treatise Regarding Important Principles of Fiqh" has been used as a basis for these articles with corrections to numerous errors in the translation, improvements and amendments to make the material easier to read and comprehend. This translation was received and published 14 years ago on the Salafi Publications website and is also widely distributed on the web.


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله ، نحمده على ما له من الأسماء الحسنى ، والصفات الكاملة العليا ، وعلى أحكامه القدرية العامة لكل مكوَّن موجود ، وأحكامه الشرعية الشاملة لكل مشروع ، وأحكام الجزاء بالثواب للمحسنين ، والعقاب للمجرمين . وأشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له في الأسماء والصفات والعبادة والأحكام ، وأشهد أن محمداً عبده ورسوله الذي بيَّن الحِكَمَ والأحكام ، ووضح الحلال والحرام ، وأصَّل الأصول وفصلها ، حتى استتم هذا الدين واستقام ، اللهم صلِّ وسلم على محمد وعلى آله وأصحابه وأتباعه ، خصوصاً العلماء الأعلام . أما بعد : فهذه رسالة لطيفة في أصول الفقه ، سهلة الألفاظ ، واضحة المعاني ، معينة على تعلم الأحكام لكل متأملٍ مُعَاني ، نسأل الله أن ينفع بها جامعها وقارئها ، إنه جواد كريم

In the name of Allaah, the Most Compassionate, Most Merciful. All praise belongs to Allaah. So we praise Him for what He possess from His beautiful Names and lofty and perfect Attributes; and for His Judgement and Decree which encompasses everything in existance; and for His Divinely Prescribed Laws which encompass every field of legislation; and His Judgement concerning rewards for the doers of good, and punishments for the criminals.

I testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah alone, who has no partner in His Names. Attributes or Judgement. And I testify that Muhammad is His Slave and Messenger; who clarified the Judgement and the rulings, made clear the halaal (lawful) and the haraam (prohibited), and established the fundamentals and expounded upon them - until the Religion was completed and establsihed firmly. O Allaah extol annd send the blessings of peace upon Muhammad, and upon his family, his Companions and those that follow them, particularly the Scholars.

To proceed: This is a brief essay concerning usoolul-fiqh (fundamentals of jurisprudence), uncomplicated in wording, clear in meaning, and useful in learning its rulings for whosoever contemplates its meanings. We ask Allaah that He benefits both its compiler and its reader. Indeed He is the Most Generous.

Chapter (One): Definition of Usool ul-Fiqh and Its Benefit

فصل: أصول الفقه : هي العلم بأدلة الفقه الكلية ، وذلك أن الفقه إما مسائل يطلب الحكم عليها بأحد الأحكام الخمسة ، وإما دلائل يُستدلُّ بها على هذه المسائل. فالفقه : هو معرفة المسائل والدلائل ، وهذه الدلائل نوعان ، كلية تشمل كل حكم من جنس واحد من أول الفقه إلى آخره ، كقولنا : الأمر للوجوب ، والنهي للتحريم ، ونحوهما ، وهذه هي أصول الفقه ، وأدلة جزئية تفصيلية تفتقر إلى أن تبنى على الأدلة الكلية ، وإذا تمت حكم على الأحكام بها ، فالأحكام مضطرة إلى أدلتها التفصيلية ، والأدلة التفصيلية مضطرة إلى الأدلة الكلية ، وبهذا نعرف الضرورة والحاجة إلى معرفة أصول الفقه وأنها معينة عليه ،وهي أساس النظر والاجتهاد في الأحكام

Usoolul-Fiqh: It is knowledge of the universal evidences (that are the framework behind) fiqh (jurisprudence). Since fiqh consist of either a) masaa'il (issues) whose rulings are sought through one of the five rulings [wajib, mustahabb, mubah, makruh, haram], or b) it is the dalaa'il (evidences) which are used to provide [the appropriate judgements] for the masaa'il (issues). So fiqh is actually knowledge of the masaa'il (issues) and the dalaa'il (evidences) [collectively].

These dalaa'il (evidences) are of two types:-

  • Universal [in] that they encompass every ruling - from the beginning to the end of fiqh - [in all cases being] of a single kind (for all issues); such as our saying: "al-amr lil-wujoob (a command is indicative of an obligation)." Or: "an-nahee lit-tahreem (a forbiddance is indicative of a prohibition)." And other similar evidences. So these are part of usoolul-fiqh.

  • Detailed evidences (which are) particular (to each issue) and which themselves are in need of the universal (principles). So when these (detailed evidences) are completed, then judgement can be resolved (for the issue) by way of them.

Thus, the ahkaam (rulings) are in need of their detailed evidences, and the detailed evidences are themselves in need of universal evidences (i.e. principles). So by this, we recognise the need and the necessity of knowing usoolul-fiqh (as a science), and that it aids in the understanding of fiqh itself, and that it is the foundation for deducing and making ijtihaad in (determining and deriving) the ahkaam (rulings).